Exosomes Isolated from Placental Mesenchymal Stem Cell (pMSCs)
Exosomes are nano-scale extracellular vesicles (30 nanometers to 100 nanometers in diameter) secreted by most cell types and serve as intercellular "signalosomes" that mediate functions including tissue repair, neural communication, and the transfer of signaling proteins, both within cells and cell to cell.
WHAT ARE EXOSOMES
Exosomes are nanoparticles that are released and received by nearly all cells in the body. They are typically 30-100 nm in size. These extra cellular vesicles act as one of our body’s communication systems, delivering important molecular payloads from cell to cell. Each exosome’s particular biological function is determined by molecules that reside either on its surface or in its interior.
Exosomes are sometimes called “signalosomes” produced by “signaling” cells (some of which are Mesenchymal Stem Cells) upon specific physiological or environmental cues, which contain a precision payload capable of modulating the phenotype of target cells
MECHANISM OF ACTION
Exosomes seek out specific cellular targets and, upon arriving at their intended destination, can transfer their cargo to recipient cells or activate signaling pathways in order to change the behavior of the recipient cell.
Clinical trials are already underway designed to test the hypotheses that exosomes might serve as a therapy to alter the inflammatory response. Early findings suggest that MSC-derived exosomes can modulate the phenotype of macrophages. This is the likely Mechanism of Action that exosomes exert on inflammation, since macrophages play a pivotal role in regulating immune responses. Macrophages assume both phagocytic “defensive” roles and exhibit regulatory “anti-inflammatory” actions, mediating both the initiation and resolution of inflammation.