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Science

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Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) with Growth Factors and mRNA

Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) are isolated from Placental Mesenchymal Stem Cell (pMSCs)

What Are EVs

EVs are nanoparticles that are released and received by nearly all cells in the body. They are typically 30-100 nm in size. These extracellular vesicles act as one of our body’s communication systems, delivering important molecular payloads from cell to cell. Each EV’s particular biological function is determined by molecules that reside either on its surface or in its interior.

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Also Known As

EVs are sometimes called exosomes or signalosomes. They produced by signaling cells (some of which are Mesenchymal Stem Cells) upon specific physiological or environmental cues, which contain a precision payload capable of modulating the phenotype of target cells.

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Mechanism of Action

EVs seek out specific cellular targets and, upon arriving at their intended destination, can transfer their cargo of mRNA, miRNA, and growth factors to recipient cells or activate signaling pathways in order to change the behavior of the recipient cell.

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Clinical trials are already underway designed to test the hypotheses that EVs might serve as a therapy to alter the inflammatory response. 

Early findings suggest that MSC-derived exosomes or EVs can modulate the phenotype of macrophages. This is the likely Mechanism of Action that EVs exert on inflammation, since macrophages play a pivotal role in regulating immune responses. 

Macrophages assume both phagocytic “defensive” roles and exhibit regulatory “anti-inflammatory” actions, mediating both the initiation and resolution of inflammation.

Growth Factors

Growth factors are natural substances made by skin cells to maintain healthy skin. Growth factors can also be produced by genetic engineering in the laboratory and used in biological therapy. Growth factors bind to receptors on the cell surface, with the result of activating cellular proliferation and/or differentiation. Growth factors are proteins that promote cell growth. They are responsible for supporting the repair of damaged skin, making components that provide firmness and elasticity to the skin while helping to maintain skin’s protective functions.